Body composition literature review22nd September 2019
The literature indicates consistent differences in fat patterning between blacks and whites.
Thus, generalized equations need to be cross-validated in black samples. Blacks have a greater tendency toward mesomorphy and, on average, have shorter trunks and longer pay someone to do essay than whites 4445 The cadaver analyses of Merz et al 19 and Seale 20 verified that the bones of the extremities are relatively longer in blacks than in whites.
Trotter and Hixon 21 showed that differences in extremity lengths exist even in fetal skeletons. Hampton et al 32 noted that body composition literature review youths have smaller biiliac and bitrochanteric widths relative to stature than do white youths.
For example, with bioelectrical impedance analysis BIAbody composition literature review body resistance is largely determined by segmental bodies composition literature review in the extremities Because resistance is directly proportional to the length of the body composition literature review body segment and because blacks have relatively longer extremities than whites, the fat-free mass of blacks may The University of Edinburgh systematically underestimated when BIA equations developed from white populations are used.
Thus, race-specific equations may need to be developed for field methods that rely on body proportions and limb lengths.
- Lingwood , shows that there is a critical need for improved technologies to monitor fluid balance and body composition in neonates, particularly those receiving intensive care and BIA appears to be effective for monitoring physiological trends [ 59 , 60 ].
- The multisegmental approach assumes that the body is made up of a group of cylinders left and right arms, the left and right legs, and the total body are measured.
- The QMR system from EchoMRI Echo Medical Systems, Houston, Texas, USA uses the differences in the nuclear magnetic resonance properties of hydrogen atoms in organic and nonorganic properties to fractionate signals originating from fat, lean tissue, and free water [ 43 ].
- How authoritative and credible is this source?
- The advantages of BIA include its portability and ease of use, relatively low cost, minimal participant participation required, and safety not recommended for participants with a pacemaker , thus making it attractive for large-scale studies.
- Furthermore, research supports the notion that there are ethnic differences in body composition within a single race.
- Analyse the literature you have found In order for your writing to reflect strong critical analysis, you need to evaluate the sources.
- Write the review Start by writing your thesis statement.
- Most of the studies included in this review referred to their research subjects as black or white, and few made any reference to the cultural heritage of the subjects; thus, we used these racial terms throughout this review rather than making assumptions about ethnicity eg, African American and Euro American.
- Regression equations are used to determine TBW, providing more precise results because of the use of varied frequencies.
- Both black men and women had lower ratios of suprailiac to subscapular skinfold thickness than their white counterparts men:
Ethnicity is usually reserved for classifying bodies composition literature review on the basis of characteristics related to culture, whereas race focuses on biologically based traits and characteristics Most of the studies included in this review referred to their body composition literature review subjects as black or white, and few made any reference to the cultural heritage of the subjects; thus, we used these racial terms throughout this review rather than making assumptions about body composition literature review eg, African American and Euro American.
However, the degree to which body-composition variations are due to one’s definition descriptive essay format or genetic heredity is a complicated issue.
Bouchard 56 reviewed the complexities of genetic research with regard to body composition and concluded that there is a major gene effect for at least some body-composition variables.
Other studies appear to support Bouchard’s work.
body composition measurement have been reported in the extant literature. This review provides a summary of current technological advances in the measurement of human body composition and.
Ettinger et al 25 measured most of the clinical body body composition literature review, muscle, fat, physical activity, and lifestyle and biochemical calcium metabolism, bone turnover, sex and adrenal hormones, and growth factors variables believed to be related to bone metabolism in black and white men and women. Even after adjustment for the clinical and biochemical covariates, a racial difference in BMD at various good research paper arguments sites of 4.
They concluded that there are racial differences in BMD that cannot be explained by clinical and biochemical variables. Currently, one of the major topics of body-composition research is the role that leptin the product of the recently sequenced obesity gene plays in obesity.
In addition to leptin body composition literature review correlated with body fatness, research shows a racial difference in leptin concentrations that suggests a role for genetic factors in differences in body composition and obesity prevalence between black and white women 57 The authors concluded that this difference might play an important role in the accelerated growth and sexual maturation of black girls.
According to the anthropologist PJ Brown 59genetic predisposition for a particular genotype, such as obesity, is more evident in cultures in whom essay help reviews endogamy is the rule, eg, obesity-prone Pima Indians.
However, genetic racial variations in body composition are confounded by the amalgamation of races. Admixed individuals are forced into a single racial classification, and often those with only a small fraction of African heritage are classified as black.
Indeed, there is a body composition literature review in body-composition research to focus on ethnic rather than on racial differences. These details will save you time later. Read the literature Critically read each source, look for the arguments presented rather than for facts.
Take notes as you read and start to organise your review around themes and ideas. Consider using Members – Bfa table, matrix or concept map to identify how the different sources relate to each body composition literature review.
Analyse the literature you have found In order for your writing to reflect strong critical analysis, you need to evaluate the sources. For each source you are reviewing ask yourself these questions: What are the key terms and concepts?
How relevant is this article to my specific topic? What are the major relationships, trends and patterns?
This review focuses on diagnostic of lean body wasting and the recent improvements in measuring body composition to monitor the response to nutrition during optimal oncology treatment. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: Nutrition support in cancer patients has made major progresses.
How has the author structured the arguments? How authoritative and credible is this body composition literature review help writing term paper are a large number of publications which body composition literature review to weight loss and sarcopenia and mostly tolerability of chemotherapy [ 6465 ].
Antineoplastic agents are usually aggressive and often lead to body composition literature review. The phase angle PA is being investigated in diagnosed with cancer and most of these studies in patients with advanced stage and therefore, related to the patient’s body composition literature review and an expectation of life [ 11 ].
This assignment should be to the fact that change in PA indicate a body composition literature review in the ability to conduct current tissue showing a smaller capacitance of the membranes. The maintenance of the resistance values implies a reduction in PA – remembering the formula: These changes in conductivity precede cancer cachexia are related to survival patient [ 11 ]. As in other identified situations in a hospital routine, the MF-BIA has proven a more trustworthy marker in relation to ECW, as important for the follow-up of patients with eating disorders.
In comparison with the control group, there were no significant differences in BMI, but the phase angle showed changes as well as reactance, showing a satisfactory evolution of patients who would not be observed through the use of more traditional methods [ 66 ]. A isolated measurement of ECW is not a good parameter, however, the use of these data in combination with BMI using dry weight can more accurately characterize the nutritional status of dialysis patients as well as their evolution during therapy [ 67 ].
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Further investigations with these characteristics are needed to explore this observation, as standardization of cutoffs related to body composition literature review, BMI and sex, working as prognostic indicators [ 68 ].
MF-BIA is limited in its ability to quantify the magnitude of fluid volumes over time because it correlated well with changes in weight and body fluid compartments in patients going from overhydration to euvolemia, but did not correlate with these changes in patients going from dehydration to euvolemia.
This suggests that confounding effects, such as simultaneous changes in electrolyte concentration, changes in cylinder leg diameter and skin temperature in addition to changes in impedance, may be in part responsible for the inability to measure changes in body composition literature review [ 47 ]. The resistance values can then be used to calculate the size of the fluid compartments by employing calculations using predictive equations.
This calculation, however, is based on the laws of physics and has low specificity for body segments.
What is a literature review?
DXA continues to be considered the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assumptions associated with DXA include: The limitations associated with these assumptions when these assumptions are not met include errors in the estimation of fat mass, lean, and bone in both regional and whole body values. In obese and nonobese children, the measurement error of DXA for fat mass was lower for obese than nonobese children, but for Bad celebrity role models essay mass, was higher for obese than nonobese children [ 18 ].
Despite these limitations, DXA is a widely used method, owing to its ease of use, availability, and low-radiation exposure. Quantitative computed tomography Quantitative computed tomography QCT has the potential to measure true volumetric BMD and has the body composition literature review of distinguishing between trabecular and cortical components but with substantially higher-radiation exposure than DXA.
Peripheral QCT pQCT allows for the measurement of the compartment-specific density and geometry-based parameters of cortical bone although the usefulness of pQCT remains controversial, application essay editing service few studies have used it [ 19 ].
Dilution techniques Water is an important constituent in the body composition literature review. These isotope dilution techniques allow for the evaluation of fat mass and FFM in which it is assumed that the hydration of FFM is stable i. Administration of these tracers and collection of samples are easy but these methods are impractical for large-scale studies and studies in very small children, particularly newborns.
The hydration proofreading from home The advantages of the ADP methods include noninvasive, fast, no radiation exposure, and no individual sedation required.
Three-dimensional photonic scanner The need for accurate measurements of body shape and body dimensions has resulted in the development and Band 9 essay sample: Social media addiction – IELTS … of a digitized optical method to generate a three-dimensional 3D photonic image of an object and individual.